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FIFA Women's World Cup

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FIFA Women's World Cup
FIFA logo without slogan
Organising bodyFIFA
Founded1991; 33 years ago (1991)
Number of teams32
Related competitionsFIFA U-20 Women's World Cup
FIFA U-17 Women's World Cup
FIFA World Cup
Current champions Spain (1st title)
Most successful team(s) United States (4 titles)
Television broadcastersList of broadcasters
WebsiteOfficial website
2027 FIFA Women's World Cup

The FIFA Women's World Cup is an international association football competition contested by the senior women's national teams of the members of Fédération Internationale de Football Association (FIFA), the sport's international governing body. The competition has been held every four years and one year after the men's FIFA World Cup since 1991, when the inaugural tournament, then called the FIFA Women's World Championship, was held in China. Under the tournament's current format, national teams vie for the remaining 31 slots in a three-year qualification phase. The host nation's team is automatically entered as the first slot. The tournament, called the World Cup Finals, is contested at venues within the host nation(s) over about one month.

The nine FIFA Women's World Cup tournaments have been won by five national teams. The United States have won four times. The other winners are Germany, with two titles, and Japan, Norway, and Spain with one title each.

Eight countries have hosted the Women's World Cup. China and the United States have each hosted the tournament twice, while Australia, Canada, France, Germany, New Zealand, and Sweden have each hosted it once.

The 2023 competition was hosted by Australia and New Zealand, making it the first edition to be held in the Southern Hemisphere, the first Women's World Cup to be hosted by two countries, as well as the first FIFA competition for either men or women to be held across two confederations.

The 2027 competition will be hosted by Brazil, making it the first edition to be held in South America.





Qualifying tournaments are held within the six FIFA continental zones (Africa, Asia, North and Central America and Caribbean, South America, Oceania, Europe), and are organized by their respective confederations: Confederation of African Football (CAF), Asian Football Confederation (AFC), Confederation of North, Central America, and Caribbean Association Football (CONCACAF), South American Football Confederation (CONMEBOL), Oceania Football Confederation (OFC), and Union of European Football Associations (UEFA). For each tournament, FIFA decides beforehand the number of berths awarded to each of the continental zones, based on the relative strength of the confederations' teams. The hosts of the World Cup receive an automatic berth in the finals. Except for the UEFA, other confederations organize its qualification campaign throughout continental tournaments. Since the 2015 FIFA Women's World Cup, the number of finalists increased from 16 to 24 and now 32.[1]

Final tournament


The final tournament has featured between 12 and 32 national teams competing over about one month in the host nation(s). There are two stages: the group stage followed by the knockout stage.[2]

In the group stage, teams are drawn into groups of four teams each. Each group plays a round-robin tournament, in which each team is scheduled for three matches against other teams in the same group. The last round of matches of each group is scheduled at the same time to preserve fairness among all four teams. In the 2015 24-team format, the two teams finishing first and second in each group and the four best teams among those ranked third qualified for the round of 16, also called the knockout stage. Points are used to rank the teams within a group. Since 1994, Three points have been awarded for a win, one for a draw and none for a loss (before, winners received two points).

The ranking of each team in each group is determined as follows:[2]

  1. Greatest number of points in group matches
  2. Greatest goal difference in group matches
  3. Greatest number of goals scored in group matches
  4. If more than one team remains level after applying the above criteria, their ranking will be determined as follows:
    1. Greatest number of points in head-to-head matches among those teams
    2. Greatest goal difference in head-to-head matches among those teams
    3. Greatest number of goals scored in head-to-head matches among those teams
  5. If any of the teams above remain level after applying the above criteria, their ranking will be determined by the drawing of lots

The knockout stage is a single-elimination tournament in which teams play each other in one-off matches, with extra time and penalty shootouts used to decide the winners if necessary. It begins with the round of 16. This is followed by the quarter-finals, semi-finals, the third-place match (contested by the losing semi-finalists), and the final.[2]



The first instance of a Women's World Cup dates back to 1970 in Italy, with the first tournament of that name taking place in July 1970, which Denmark won.[3] This was followed by another unofficial World Cup tournament in Mexico in 1971, in which Denmark won the title after defeating Mexico, 3–0, in the final at the Azteca Stadium.[4][5][6] In the 1980s, the Mundialito was held in Italy across four editions with both Italy and England winning two titles.[7]

Several countries lifted bans on women's football in the 1970s, leading to new teams being established in many countries. After official continental women's tournaments were held in Asia in 1975[8] and Europe in 1984, Ellen Wille declared that she wanted better effort from the FIFA Congress in promoting the women's game.[9] This came in the form of the 1988 FIFA Women's Invitation Tournament in China as a test to see if a global women's World Cup was feasible. Twelve national teams took part in the competition – four from UEFA, three from AFC, two from CONCACAF, one each from CONMEBOL, CAF and OFC. After the opening match of the tournament between China and Canada was attended by 45,000 people, the tournament was deemed a success, with crowds averaging 20,000. Norway, who was the European champions, defeated Sweden, 1–0, in the final, while Brazil clinched third place by beating the hosts in a penalty shootout.[10] The competition was deemed a success and on 30 June FIFA approved the establishment of an official World Cup, which was to take place in 1991 again in China. Again, twelve teams competed, this time culminating in the United States defeating Norway in the final, 2–1, with Michelle Akers scoring two goals.[11]

The 1995 edition in Sweden saw the experiment of a time-out concept throughout the tournament which was later tightened mid-tournament to only occur after a break in play. The time-out only appeared in the one tournament which saw it scrapped. The final of the 1995 edition saw Norway, who scored 17 goals in the group stage, defeat Germany, 2–0, to capture their only title.[12] In the 1999 edition, one of the most famous moments of the tournament was American defender Brandi Chastain's victory celebration after scoring the Cup-winning penalty kick against China. She took off her jersey and waved it over her head (as men frequently do) as she celebrated. The 1999 final in the Rose Bowl in Pasadena, California, had an attendance of 90,185.[13]

The 1999 and 2003 Women's World Cups were both held in the United States; in 2003 China was supposed to host it, but the tournament was moved because of SARS.[14] As compensation, China retained their automatic qualification to the 2003 tournament as host nation, and was automatically chosen to host the 2007 FIFA Women's World Cup. Germany hosted the 2011 FIFA Women's World Cup, as decided by vote in October 2007. In March 2011, FIFA awarded Canada the right to host the 2015 FIFA Women's World Cup. The 2015 competition saw the field expand from 16 to 24 teams.[15]

During the 2015 FIFA Women's World Cup, both Formiga of Brazil and Homare Sawa of Japan appeared in their record sixth World Cup,[16] a feat that had never been achieved before by either female or male players. Christie Pearce became the oldest player to ever play in a Women's World Cup match, at the age of 40 years.[17] In March 2015, FIFA awarded France the right to host the 2019 FIFA Women's World Cup over South Korea.[18]

In the 2019 edition, which was held in France, the United States won the tournament for the fourth time.

In 2023, Australia and New Zealand hosted the FIFA Women's World Cup for the first time as joint hosts, and the number of participants was expanded from 24 to 32. It was also the first tournament to be held in the Southern Hemisphere. With Australia and New Zealand respectively being members of the Asian Football Confederation and Oceania Football Confederation, this was the first FIFA senior competition to be hosted across two confederations. Spain won their first-ever title, defeating England 1-0 in the final. This made Spain the 2nd nation to win both the Men's and Women's World Cup, after Germany.



The current trophy was designed in 1998 by William Sawaya for the 1999 tournament and takes the form of a spiral band, enclosing a football at the top. It was sculpted by Sawaya & Moroni in Milan and stands 47 cm (19 in) tall, weighs 4.6 kg (10 lb) and is made of sterling silver clad in 23-karat yellow and white gold.[19] In the 2010s, it was fitted with a cone-shaped base. Underneath the base, the name of each of the tournament's previous winners is engraved.[20] The trophy had an estimated value in 2015 of approximately $30,000; by contrast, the men's World Cup trophy is fabricated in 18-karat gold and has a precious metal value of $150,000. However, a new Winner's Trophy is constructed for each women's champion to take home, while there is only one original women's trophy which is retained by FIFA with each women's champion taking home a replica trophy.[21]

Since 2007, the winners are also awarded the FIFA Champions Badge, which is worn on the jerseys of the winning team until the winners of the next tournament have been decided.[22]



Selection results

Total of World Cup competitions hosted by each confederation (1991–2023)
Confederation and year in bold has an upcoming competition
Confederation Total Hosts
Asian Football Confederation
3 1991:  China
2007:  China
2023:  Australia
Confederation of African Football
Confederation of North, Central America and Caribbean Association Football
3 1999:  United States
2003:  United States
2015:  Canada
South American Football Confederation
1 2027:  Brazil
Oceania Football Confederation
1 2023:  New Zealand
Union of European Football Associations
3 1995:  Sweden
2011:  Germany
2019:  France


Year Hosts Venues/
attendance †
Matches Average
Highest attendances
Number Venue Game(s)
1991  China 6/4 510,000 26 18,344 65,000 Tianhe Stadium, Guangzhou China PR 4–0 Norway, Opening match
1995  Sweden 5/5 112,213 26 4,316 17,158 Råsunda Stadium, Solna Germany 0–2 Norway, final
1999  United States 8/8 1,214,209 32 37,944 90,185 Rose Bowl, Pasadena, California United States 0–0 (5–4p) China PR, final
2003  United States 6/6 679,664 32 21,240 34,144 Robert F. Kennedy Memorial Stadium, Washington, D.C. United States 3–1 Sweden, quarter-final
2007  China 5/5 1,190,971 32 37,218 55,832 Tianjin Olympic Center, Tianjin China PR 2–0 New Zealand, group stage
2011  Germany 9/9 845,751 32 26,430 73,680 Olympiastadion, Berlin Germany 2–1 Canada, group stage
2015  Canada 6/6 1,353,506 52 26,029 54,027 BC Place, Vancouver England 2–1 Canada, quarter-final
2019  France 9/9 1,131,312 52 21,756 57,900 Parc Olympique Lyonnais, Décines-Charpieu United States 2–0 Netherlands, final
2023  Australia
 New Zealand
10/9 1,978,274 64 30,911 75,784 Stadium Australia, Sydney Five matches, all at Stadium Australia.
2027  Brazil 10/10 TBA TBA
Overall 9,015,900 348 25,908 90,185 Rose Bowl, Pasadena (1999)

† Source: FIFA[23][24]


  • The 2003 Women's World Cup was initially planned to be hosted by China, with FIFA awarding the hosting rights in October 2000. Following a SARS outbreak, it was re-awarded to the United States in May 2003.[25]
  • The 2023 FIFA Women's World Cup set a new attendance record for all FIFA competitions besides the men's FIFA World Cup.[24]


Ed. Year Hosts Final Third-place playoff No. of
Champions Score Runners-up Third place Score Fourth place
1 1991  China
United States

2 1995  Sweden

United States
3 1999  United States
United States
0–0 (a.e.t.)
(5–4 p)


0–0[n 1]
(5–4 p)

4 2003[n 2]  United States
2–1 (a.e.t.)

United States
5 2007  China

United States
6 2011  Germany
2–2 (a.e.t.)
(3–1 p)

United States

7 2015  Canada
United States

1–0 (a.e.t.)
8 2019  France
United States

9 2023  Australia
 New Zealand


10 2027  Brazil 32
  1. ^ No extra time was played.[26]
  2. ^ The 2003 FIFA Women's World Cup was held in the United States following a SARS outbreak in China, where it was initially planned to be held.

In total, 44 nations have played in at least one Women's World Cup. Of those, five nations have won the World Cup. With four titles, the United States is the most successful Women's World Cup team; it is one of only seven nations to play in every World Cup. They have also had the most top-four finishes (8), medals (8), as well as final appearances (5), including the longest streak of three consecutive finals in 2011, 2015, and 2019.

Map of countries' best results

Teams reaching the top four

Teams reaching the semi-finals
Team Title(s) Runners-up Third place Fourth place Top 4
 United States 4 (1991, 1999*, 2015, 2019) 1 (2011) 3 (1995, 2003*, 2007) 8
 Germany 2 (2003, 2007) 1 (1995) 2 (1991, 2015) 5
 Norway 1 (1995) 1 (1991) 2 (1999, 2007) 4
 Japan 1 (2011) 1 (2015) 2
 Spain 1 (2023) 1
 Sweden 1 (2003) 4 (1991, 2011, 2019, 2023) 5
 England 1 (2023) 1 (2015) 1 (2019) 3
 Brazil 1 (2007) 1 (1999) 2
 China 1 (1999) 1 (1995) 2
 Netherlands 1 (2019) 1
 Canada 1 (2003) 1
 France 1 (2011) 1
 Australia 1 (2023*) 1
* host nation

Best performance by confederations


As of 2023, four of the six FIFA confederations have made it to a Women's World Cup final, the only exceptions being CAF (Africa) and the OFC (Oceania). CONMEBOL is the only confederation to have made a World Cup final without winning, following Brazil's defeat in the 2007 final. The farthest advancing African team was Nigeria, who were eliminated in the quarter-finals in 1999. Oceania has sent two teams, Australia and New Zealand, to the World Cup, but Australia did not advance from the group stage until after the country's football association moved to the Asian Football Confederation, and New Zealand (which remains in the OFC) has never advanced to the knockout rounds.

The United States and Norway are the only teams to have won a tournament hosted by their own confederations, with the U.S. winning in 1999 (at home) and 2015 (in Canada), and Norway in 1995 (in Sweden).

Total times teams qualified by confederation
Champions 1 0 4 0 0 4
Runners-up 2 0 1 1 0 5
Third place 0 0 3 1 0 5
Fourth place 2 0 1 0 0 6
Finalists 3 0 5 1 0 9
Semi-finalists 5 0 9 2 0 20
Quarter-finalists 16 1 10 5 0 40
Top 16 (since 2015) 9 6 6 4 0 23
Qualifiers 35 20 26 18 9 60

Broadcasting and revenue


As of 2017, the 2015 FIFA Women's World Cup Final was the most watched soccer match in American history with nearly 23 million viewers,[27] more than the 2015 NBA Finals and Stanley Cup.[28] It was also the most watched Spanish-language broadcast in tournament history.[27] More than 750 million viewers were reported to have watched the tournament worldwide.[29]

The 2015 Women's World Cup generated almost $73 million.[30] By comparison, that equates to 1% of the revenue generated by the 2018 men's tournament of $6.1 billion.[31][32]

In 2023, FIFA separated broadcast rights for the Women's World Cup from the men's tournament for the first time, and president Gianni Infantino suggested in May 2023 that the 2023 FIFA Women's World Cup might not be broadcast in the "Big 5" European countries due to disappointing offers.[33][34] As of 3 June 2023, FIFA had yet to reach broadcast agreements in Spain, Germany, Italy, France, Japan, or the United Kingdom, with German broadcasters ZDF and ARD bidding 3% as much for the Women's World Cup as the 2022 men's World Cup, French and Spanish broadcasters less than 5%, and Italian broadcasters less than 1%.[34]

Records and statistics


Boldface indicates a player still playing.

Top goalscorers

Marta of Brazil is the all-time leading scorer of the senior FIFA World Cups.
Rank Player Goals scored
1 Brazil Marta 17
2 Germany Birgit Prinz 14
United States Abby Wambach
4 United States Michelle Akers 12
5 Brazil Cristiane 11
China Sun Wen
Germany Bettina Wiegmann
8 Canada Christine Sinclair 10
Norway Ann Kristin Aarønes
United States Carli Lloyd
Rank Country Goals scored
1  United States 142
2  Germany 129
3  Norway 100
4  Sweden 83
5  Brazil 71
6  England 56
7  China 55
8  Japan 54
9  Australia 48
10  France 44



At the end of each World Cup, awards are presented to select players and teams for accomplishments other than their final team positions in the tournament.

  • There are currently five post-tournament awards from the FIFA Technical Study Group:[35]
    • The Golden Ball (currently commercially termed "adidas Golden Ball") for the best overall player of the tournament (first awarded in 1991);
    • The Golden Boot (currently commercially termed "Adidas Golden Boot", formerly known as the Golden Shoe) for the top goalscorer of the tournament (first awarded in 1991);
    • The Golden Glove (currently commercially termed "Adidas Golden Glove", formerly known as the Best Goalkeeper) for the best goalkeeper of the tournament (first awarded in 2003);
    • The FIFA Young Player Award for the best player of the tournament under 21 years of age at the start of the calendar year (first awarded in 2011);
    • The FIFA Fair Play Trophy for the team with the best record of fair play during the tournament (first awarded in 1991).
  • There is currently one award voted on by fans during the tournament:
    • The Player of the Match (currently commercially termed "VISA Player of the Match") for outstanding performance by a player during each match of the tournament (first awarded in 2003).
  • There is currently one award voted on by fans after the conclusion of the tournament:
    • The Goal of the Tournament (currently commercially termed "Hyundai Goal of the Tournament") for the fans' best goal scored during the tournament (first awarded in 2007).
  • The following five awards are no longer given:
    • The All-Star Squad for the best squad of players of the tournament (chosen by the technical study group, awarded from 1999 to 2015);
    • The Most Entertaining Team for the team that entertained the fans the most during the tournament (voted on by fans after the conclusion of the tournament, awarded in 2003 and 2007);
    • The FANtasy All-Star Team for the fans' best eleven-player line-up of the tournament (voted on by fans after the conclusion of the tournament, awarded in 2003);
    • The Dream Team for the fans' best manager and eleven-player line-up of the tournament (voted on by fans after the conclusion of the tournament, awarded in 2015);
    • The Players Who Dared to Shine for ten key players of the tournament who "dared to shine" (chosen by the technical study group, awarded in 2019).
World Cup Golden Ball Golden Boot Goals Golden Glove Clean sheets FIFA Young Player Award FIFA Fair Play Trophy
China 1991 China United States Carin Jennings United States Michelle Akers 10 Not awarded N/A Not awarded  Germany
Sweden 1995 Sweden Norway Hege Riise Norway Ann Kristin Aarønes 6  Sweden
United States 1999 United States China Sun Wen China Sun Wen
Brazil Sissi
7 China Gao Hong
United States Briana Scurry
5  China
United States 2003 United States Germany Birgit Prinz Germany Birgit Prinz 7 Germany Silke Rottenberg 5  China
China 2007 China Brazil Marta Brazil Marta 7 Germany Nadine Angerer 6  Norway
Germany 2011 Germany Japan Homare Sawa Japan Homare Sawa 5 United States Hope Solo 2 Australia Caitlin Foord  Japan
Canada 2015 Canada United States Carli Lloyd Germany Célia Šašić 6 United States Hope Solo 5 Canada Kadeisha Buchanan  France
France 2019 France United States Megan Rapinoe United States Megan Rapinoe 6 Netherlands Sari van Veenendaal 3 Germany Giulia Gwinn  France
AustraliaNew Zealand 2023 Australia/New Zealand Spain Aitana Bonmatí Japan Hinata Miyazawa 5 England Mary Earps 3 Spain Salma Paralluelo  Japan

See also



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  2. ^ a b c "Regulations FIFA Women's World Cup Canada 2015" (PDF). FIFA.com. Fédération Internationale de Football Association. Archived from the original (PDF) on 9 December 2014. Retrieved 12 June 2015.
  3. ^ Garin, Erik (26 February 2015). "Coppa del Mondo (Women) 1970". RSSSF. Archived from the original on 28 July 2022. Retrieved 14 May 2019.
  4. ^ Wilson, Bill (7 December 2018). "Mexico 1971: When women's football hit the big time". BBC. Archived from the original on 7 December 2018. Retrieved 14 May 2019.
  5. ^ Garin, Eric (29 February 2004). "Mundial (Women) 1971". RSSSF. Archived from the original on 28 July 2022. Retrieved 14 May 2019.
  6. ^ Kessel, Anna (5 June 2015). "Women's World Cup: from unofficial tournaments to record-breaking event". The Guardian. Archived from the original on 5 June 2015. Retrieved 14 May 2019.
  7. ^ Garin, Erik (11 April 2019). "Mundialito (Women) 1981–1988". RSSSF. Archived from the original on 3 August 2022. Retrieved 14 May 2019.
  8. ^ "Foundation of Asian brilliance". AFC. 15 February 2018. Archived from the original on 3 July 2019. Retrieved 21 May 2019.
  9. ^ "Ellen Wille, mother of Norwegian women's football". FIFA. 30 June 2011. Archived from the original on 8 June 2019. Retrieved 21 May 2019.
  10. ^ "A green and gold shirt steeped in history". 16 December 2015. Archived from the original on 29 June 2019. Retrieved 22 May 2019.
  11. ^ "When Akers and USA got the party started". FIFA.com. 13 December 2018. Archived from the original on 13 December 2018. Retrieved 22 May 2019.
  12. ^ "Norway take gold in Sweden". FIFA.com. 22 March 2007. Archived from the original on 24 May 2019. Retrieved 24 May 2019.
  13. ^ "Women's World Cup History". The Sports Network. Retrieved 25 March 2007.[permanent dead link]
  14. ^ Koppel, Naomi (3 May 2003). "FIFA moves Women's World Cup from China because of SARS". USA Today. Archived from the original on 12 February 2009. Retrieved 27 March 2007.
  15. ^ Molinaro, John F. (3 March 2011). "Canada gets 2015 Women's World Cup of soccer". CBC Sports. Archived from the original on 4 March 2011. Retrieved 9 May 2011.
  16. ^ "Japan legend Sawa cuts sixth World Cup". Reuters. 1 May 2015. Archived from the original on 21 August 2016.
  17. ^ "USWNT'S Christie Rampone Is Now The Oldest Player To Appear In The Women's World Cup". Huffington Post. 17 June 2015. Archived from the original on 17 June 2015.
  18. ^ "France to host the FIFA Women's World Cup in 2019". FIFA.com. 19 March 2015. Archived from the original on 20 March 2015.
  19. ^ "The FIFA Women's World Cup Original Trophy is Back". FIFA Museum. 10 October 2019. Retrieved 10 March 2024.
  20. ^ "The Official Women's World Cup Trophy". www.fifa.com. Archived from the original on 19 March 2017. Retrieved 2 October 2018.
  21. ^ "Women's World Cup Trophy Is Made of Gold-Clad Sterling Silver; Men's Version Is 18-Karat Gold". The Jeweler's Blog. 5 July 2015. Archived from the original on 13 October 2018. Retrieved 13 October 2018.
  22. ^ "FIFA World Champions Badge honors Real Madrid's impeccable year". FIFA. 20 October 2014. Archived from the original on 22 December 2019. Retrieved 21 December 2019. The badge is also worn by the Japanese women's national team following their triumph at the FIFA Women's World Cup 2011™ ...
  23. ^ "FIFA Women's World Cup Canada 2015" (PDF). FIFA. p. 148. Archived (PDF) from the original on 31 August 2021. Retrieved 22 May 2019.
  24. ^ a b "Key figures from the FIFA Women's World Cup Canada 2015™". FIFA. 7 July 2015. Archived from the original on 11 July 2015. Retrieved 3 October 2016.
  25. ^ Longman, Jere (27 May 2003). "U.S. Replaces China As Host of Soccer's Women's World Cup". The New York Times. p. D1. Archived from the original on 8 September 2018. Retrieved 1 November 2012.
  26. ^ "Brazil takes third". SI/CNN. 10 July 1999. Archived from the original on 28 February 2002. Retrieved 2 July 2011.
  27. ^ a b "Women's World Cup Final Is Most-watched football Match in U.S. History". U.S. Soccer. 8 July 2015. Archived from the original on 9 July 2015. Retrieved 27 June 2017.
  28. ^ Hinog, Mark (6 July 2015). "More Americans watched the Women's World Cup final than the NBA Finals or the Stanley Cup 24". SB Nation. Archived from the original on 7 July 2015. Retrieved 27 June 2017.
  29. ^ "Record-breaking FIFA Women's World Cup tops 750 million TV viewers". FIFA. 17 December 2015. Archived from the original on 18 December 2015. Retrieved 27 June 2017.
  30. ^ "Equal pay for women's World Cup players? Seriously?". NBC Sports. Archived from the original on 24 January 2023. Retrieved 24 January 2023.
  31. ^ "US Women's Soccer Fans Demand 'Equal Pay' After 13-0 Win – Brutally Reminded of Loss to U15 Boys". Pluralist.com. Archived from the original on 3 July 2019. Retrieved 3 July 2019.
  32. ^ Panja, Tariq (13 June 2018). "FIFA Set to Make $6.1 billion From 2018 World Cup". The New York Times. Archived from the original on 2 January 2022. Retrieved 24 January 2023.
  33. ^ "FIFA Set to Make $6.1 billion From 2018 World Cup". Boxscore World Sportswire. Archived from the original on 18 May 2023. Retrieved 17 May 2023.
  34. ^ a b Lloyd-Hughes, Florence (3 June 2023). "Women's World Cup unresolved issues: TV rights and player release dates". The Athletic. Retrieved 5 June 2023.
  35. ^ "FIFA Women's World Cup France 2019: Technical Report" (PDF). FIFA.com. Fédération Internationale de Football Association. 22 September 2019. Archived (PDF) from the original on 27 July 2021. Retrieved 22 September 2019.